The reliable estimation of the pupil position in eye images is perhaps the most important prerequisite in gaze-based HMI applications.
While there are many approaches that enable accurate pupil tracking under laboratory conditions, tracking the pupil in real-world images
is highly challenging due to changes in illumination, reflections on glasses or on the eyeball, off-axis camera position, contact lenses, and many more.

Algorithms:

Description ElSe:
The input to the algorithm is a grayscale image. After normalization, a Canny edge filter is applied to
the image. In the next algorithmic step, edge connections that could impair the surrounding edge of
the pupil are removed. Afterwards connected edges are collected and evaluated based on straightness, intensity value,
elliptic properties, the possibility to fit an ellipse to it, and a pupil
plausibility check. If a valid ellipse describing the pupil is found, it
is returned as the result.
In case no ellipse is found a second analysis is
conducted. To speed up the convolution with the surface difference and mean filter the image is downscaled. This operation is performed by calculating a histogram
for all pixels from the large image influencing the pixel in the downscaled image. In each histogram, the mean of all intensity values
up to the mean of the histogram is calculated and used as a value for the pixel in the downscaled image. After applying the surface
difference and mean filter to the rescaled image, the best position is selected by multiplying the result of both filters and
selecting the maximum position.
Choosing a pixel position in the downscaled image leads to a distance error of the pupil center in the
full scale image. Therefore, the position has to be optimized on the full scale image based on an analysis of the surrounding
pixels of the chosen position.

Description ExCuSe:
The input to the algorithm is a grayscale image. In the first step the color histogram is analysed and the algorithm decides if he expects the pupil to be bright or dark.
For bright pupils the algorithm selects the curvedd edge with the darkest enclosed intesity value. This is done by refining the result of the canny edge filtered image with
morphologic operations. The remaining edges are analysed if they are curved or straight. For the curved edges the eclosed intesity value is calculated and the best is selected.
If the algorithm expects the pupil to be dark a threshold based on the standard deviation is calculated. The image gets thresholded and a coarse positioning is performed similarly to the
radon transformation. This coarse position is optimized by moving to near intesity values which are darker or equal dark to their neigbourhood.
After the optimization the image is threasholded by an increased threashold. All edges which are to far from pixels under the threashold are removed. The remaining edges
get filterd as described befor for the bright pupil. Starting from the optmized position the surrounding edges are used to fit an ellipse.